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How google helps 600,000 webmasters re-secure their hacked sites every year
01 Why are websites hacked?
02 How many sites are hacked?
03 Warning browser users
04 Warning Google Search users
05 Warning webmasters that their site is hacked
06 Hacked Notification Effectiveness
07 Not all notifications are equal
08 Long-term cleanup
09 What can I do to help?
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Filter by
Remedying web hijacking notification effectiveness and webmaster comprehension
Learn web security with Google
How phishing works
Blog post
Attacks against machine learning — an overview
Blog post
How to handle mistakes while using AI to block attacks
Blog post
Challenges faced while training an AI to combat abuse
Blog post
Authors Elie Bursztein
Date June 2016
Reading time 6 min read

Every year, close to 600,000 sites are hacked by people trying to distribute malware, peddle fake goods or phish users. Given the scale of the problem, notifying users to prevent harm and webmasters so they can clean up their sites is critical to combat hacking. This post looks at the effectiveness of the current warning strategies used by Google and other companies, and their long-term impact. This blog post is a summary of the study on the effectiveness of notification strategies for hacked sites that we ran at Google in partnership with the University of California, Berkeley. Our goal was to understand how we can improve our notifications so we reach more webmasters and help them clean up their sites faster and more efficiently. The full study results are available in a research paper , which was published at Diamonfire Womens Earrings 925nbsp;Sterling Silver 082nbsp;WHITE 62nbsp;1272/1/082 kOxjwr
and Kurt Thomas wrote a summary in his Google blog post . We will start by briefly summarizing why sites are hacked and who is getting hacked. Then we will discuss warning strategies for users followed by notification strategies for webmasters and we will conclude with what you can do to help.

Why are websites hacked?

Websites are mainly hacked for the following three reasons:

How many sites are hacked?

For our study, we looked at the 760,935 hacking incidents we detected between July 2014 and June 2015. Those incidents affected 579,932 sites, with some sites being involved in multiple incidents.

From the chart above, we observe that more sites are hacked for malware and phishing purposes than for blackhat SEO reasons. However, we detected more blackhat SEO incidents, which indicates that websites hacked for SEO purposes tend to be hacked multiple times. This is partially because SEO backdoors are hard to clean up because they are added to many legitimate pages. For example, some backdoors will modify the code of all the WordPress plugins installed.

Over the last year, as visible in the graph above, the number of phishing sites that Safe Browsing detected kept increasing, reaching an all-time high in 2016. The trends and more information about how many malicious sites have been detected are available on the Google Safe Browsing transparency report .

Warning browser users

As soon as a page is detected as being compromised, it is added to the Google Safe Browsing API . This API is used by Chrome, Safari, Firefox and many websites such as to know wen to warn users. For example, the screenshot below shows the warning that Chrome will display when you attempt to visit a page that has been added to Safe Browsing.

The Google Safe Browsing API offers protection against malware, social engineering like phishing, unwanted software and potentially harmful applications . Beside web pages, the Safe Browsing API protects also against bad binaries including software that plasters web pages with ads which are detected as unwanted software .

The chart above, taken from the Google Safe Browsing transparency report, shows that millions of users are protected by Safe Browsing. For example, for the week beginning March 27, 2016, a total of 57,101,380 users saw a warning.

To ensure that users pay attention to these warnings, the Chrome team has invested a lot of effort into optimize them to reduce the number of people clicking through so they dont got harmed. They tried many design, including the one depicted above

Warning Google Search users

Safe Browsing is also used in Google Search results to prevent users from accessing compromised websites while searching for information. The screenshot above is from the 8th page of the results for a search. It indicates that the page has been hacked and users are not able to click the link.

The chart above is also from the Safe Browsing transparency report. You can see that every week, tens of millions of search results are marked as hacked. For example, for the week beginning May 15, 2016, altogether 42,028,563 search results had a warning.

Warning webmasters that their site is hacked

Google can notify webmasters of a compromise in two ways. If the webmaster has a Webmaster Tools account , they are contacted via the search console as illustrated above. If the webmaster does not use Google Webmaster Tools, then we try to contact them through the email address listed in WHOIS.

Between July 2014 and June 2015, we sent 139,818 notifications via the Search Console alerts and 336,122 notifications via the email address on WHOIS, as visible in the chart above.

Hacked Notification Effectiveness

Is notifying webmaster effective? Yes i is: when webmasters are notified, blue line on the chart above, they are able to clean up their sites faster than when they are not notified, orange line on the chart.

Not all notifications are equal

We observe that the notifications sent through the search console are the best one both in term of reaction time and clean up percentage. Browser warnings are a distant second and search warning is the least effective. This indicate that having the ability to reach webmaster effectively is essential to make notification helpful. This is why in attempt to reach webmasters faster Safe Browsing notification are now Eclectic Shop Uk A Gay Pride Rainbow Wristband Lesbian Friendship Bracelet Lgbt Cuff Bangle qVh7pdwX
as visible in the screenshot below.

Long-term cleanup

As mentioned earlier in the post, a key challenge with cleaning websites up is making sure that not only the symptom is removed, e.g., the phishing page, but the root cause is addressed as well. We have found that a good fraction of sites 22% of those hacked for SEO purposes and 6% of those hacked for malware and phishing purposes are not completely cleaned up and are hacked again. These numbers show how important it is to develop tools and documentation to help webmasters clean up an infected site. It also suggests that SEO backdoors are harder to remove, as they infect many pages of a site.

What can I do to help?

As an internet user : If you are a user, please do not ignore the warnings. There is a real risk that you will become compromised, phished or tricked if you ignore and proceed to the site. As a webmaster : If you are a webmaster, please register with the Webmaster Tools so we can contact you easily if your site is hacked. You should also make sure the email address for your domain in WHOIS is correct so people can contact you if needed. As always, also keep your software up to date to prevent hackers from exploiting old vulnerabilities to hack your site. As a social media user : Share and like this post, so we reach as many webmasters as possible! Let me know what you think is the best way to notify webmasters and what else the security community should be doing to keep the internet a safe place.

Distributing malware

For shallots: Vegetable oil for frying 2 small shallots, thinly sliced 1/4 teaspoon salt

For hummus: 1 large (19-ounce) can white beans (e.g. cannellini), rinsed and drained 2 tablespoons lemon juice 2 tablespoons tahini 1 clove garlic 1/2 teaspoon dried oregano 1/4 teaspoon salt 1/8 teaspoon freshly ground black pepper 1/3 cup olive oil, plus more for garnish

1) Fill a small, cold skillet with about 1/4-inch of vegetable oil. Add shallots and turn heat to medium-high. Cook until browned and crispy, 6–8 minutes.

2) Meanwhile, combine all hummus ingredients except oil in food processor; turn machine on and pour the oil into the mixture in a smooth stream. Process until smooth. Transfer hummus to a bowl and top with shallots and an additional drizzle of oil.

Grilled Tzimmes

Re-create the flavors of this Rosh Hashana mainstay on your backyard grill. Serves 4

2 sweet potatoes, peeled and cut into 1/4-inch rounds 2 carrots, halved vertically and cut into 1-inch pieces 3 apricots, halved and pitted 2 red pears, cored and quartered 4 tablespoons olive oil, divided 2 tablespoons brown sugar 1 teaspoon cider vinegar Salt and freshly ground black pepper 3 tablespoons raisins (optional)

1) Preheat grill or grill pan to medium heat. In a large bowl, toss sweet potatoes, carrots, apricots and pears with 2 tablespoons oil and salt and pepper to taste.

2) Grill vegetables and fruit in batches, starting with the sweet potatoes and carrots (about 8 minutes, covered and turning once), followed by the apricots and pears (4-5 minutes, turning once). Arrange grilled vegetables and fruits on a platter.

3) Whisk together brown sugar, cider vinegar, remaining 2 tablespoons oil and salt and pepper to taste in a small bowl. Drizzle dressing over the vegetables and sprinkle with raisins, if using.

Leah Koenig is a freelance writer who’s work has appeared in The New York Times Magazine, Saveur, Gastronomica and Food Arts, among others. She also contributes a monthly column called Ingredients to The Forward, and is a former employee of Hazon where she edited The Jew The Carrot. The Hadassah Everyday Cookbook: Daily Meals for the Contemporary Jewish Kitchen (Rizzoli March, 2011) is her first cookbook.


Join thousands of readers and give today to help fund the Forward ’s reliable reporting, intelligent analysis, and a Jewish voice you cantrust on news, culture, lifestyle and opinion. Thank you for making agenerous donation now.

More and more fields are using 3D printing technology for parts production, which makes the availability of advanced materials increasingly important. Material scientists from both Polymaker and Covestro suggest that U1000 and U0174D, both of which have several unique features, can be used to provide solutions for a wide range of new applications, which means new customers, as well as contributing “to the further penetration of AM into a variety of industrial markets.”

Dr. Xiaofan Luo, President of Polymaker, said, “We are very excited about these two materials.They will certainly enable lots of new applications and open opportunities in a variety of industries.”

U1000 and U0174D are boththermoplastic polyurethanes, or TPUs – a particular specialty of Covestro, which is actually an independent subgroup within the Bayer company and used to be known as Bayer MaterialScience. TPU allows for permanent bonding between layers that are being 3D printed, and due to its elastic nature, offers great flexibility and abrasion resistance.

Wang said, “Polyurethane is an incredibly versatile chemistry that can be used to create almost endless possibilities in materials.”

While most conventional TPUs are rubbery and soft, the newU1000 and U0174D materials are tough and strong, just like engineering plastics. Both of these versatile materials have good heat resistance, layer adhesion, and mechanical strength, and can be used to print durable parts for manufacturing environments, like jigs and fixtures, molds, structural components, and tools.

U1000 and U0174D differ from other high-performance plastics in that they don’t require demanding printing conditions, such as high chamber and nozzle temperatures: they can both be printed, on almost any thermoplastic extrusion-based 3D printer, under much more mild conditions. However, there are a few major differences between these new materials. Ductile U0174D feels more likea semi-crystalline plastic, likepolypropylene, and has excellent fracture toughness, while still U1000 has a high modulus, such as glassy polymers likepolystyrene and polycarbonate.

What do you think of these new materials? Discuss this and other 3D printing topics at or share your thoughts in the Facebook comments below.

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thermoplastic polyurethane

The impetus behind the change? “It’s clear the community wants retailtainment,” said Barnes Noble Vice President of Development David Deason in a piece by Minnesota’s Star Tribune . “This is a departure for us. It’s not grab-and-go, but sit-and-stay.”

This “sit-and-stay” idea is what brick and mortar retailers can take from Barnes Noble’s retailtainment concept.

One of the central tenets behind retailtainment is the notion that the longer people spend in your store(s), the more likely they are to purchase something. So focus your retailtainment strategy on a particular area (to throw it back to our first point), and make sure that area is something that’ll entice customers to “sit-and-stay” rather than “grab-and-go.”

National Geographic and iP2Entertainment are in the process of developing two “museum retail” locations in China.

According to a National Geographic press release , the Shenyang and Hengqin centers (with the former set to open in summer 2017) will “offer a unique opportunity to play and explore through themed attractions, interactive demonstrations, and hands-on workshops in a fun and immersive environment that ignites kids’ curiosity about the world.”

The National Geographic-branded “Museum Retail” locations will fuse education with retail, and a portion of the proceeds will go to the National Geographic Society’s nonprofit work.

It’s this last part that we think brick and mortar retailers can take to heart. If you have the means, incorporate a charity element into your retailtainment experience . Customers will be more likely to get involved if they feel like they’re contributing to a good cause.

We hope these retailtainment examples have shed some light on the kinds of experiences consumers are looking for. Have you come across any compelling retailtainment concepts recently? Let us know in the comments!

About Nikki Michaels

Nikki is Vend's content and copy wizard. American-born and Auckland-based, she's into reading (a lot), writing (obviously), and travelling (always).

Michael Kevin Spencer May 12, 2017 Log in to Reply

If the new consumer shops differently; unique “Retailtainment ” can certainly be the difference maker in hacking and growing your retail business.

Really enjoyed this piece Nikki. How effective do you think live events, free product give aways and offering educational aspects to a store’s retail audience can be at boosting in-store traffic and especially increasing customer retention?

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